Sanitation in the history of civilization
The problem arose with the advent of sanitation in the home waters. History shows us that the sewage system known to mankind since the ancient world.
More recently, under the Forum in ancient sewer archaeologists has discovered the head of the statue of Emperor Constantine the ancient period. This is an ancient sewage system and still partially used by the municipality ... In the Middle Ages the art of sanitation was forgotten and lost, right on the street poured out all the impurities, and only later Louis XIV used the potty (sometimes not even stopping the audience). Re-canalization in Europe appeared relatively recently, in Russia, and does only at the dawn of the last century and not in all cities, but only eleven. And in Moscow sewer outside the Garden Ring is also absent. According to the most belly horse drowned in the mud under Peter the streets of Moscow, although the first underground channels in Russia for the diversion of dirty water were built in Moscow and Novgorod in the XI-XIV centuries. As a result, lack of sanitation led to the mass distribution of countless infectious diseases, resulting in a third of the population of Moscow at the end of the XVIII century. died from the plague. New History of sanitation In St. Petersburg at the beginning of XX century. As showing the then statistics for the year the waste products of one citizen is approximately 700 pounds, that is, more than 11 tonnes, taking into account not only the faeces, but also wash and other impurities. Peasants from nearby villages had been fishing zolotarny Company now: all the excrement of the city's cesspools peasants in boats exported and dumped in the sea and winter when the water froze in the Gulf, all the sewage, together with snow and waste in the night-time farmers were taken to the fields and used as fertilizer. With urban growth and development of production and increased demand in the drainage, which led to the fact that the city had established large-scale construction sewer. In different historical periods used for construction of sewer pipes, wooden, stone and metal. In the construction of modern sewage systems used types of concrete pipe, and urban sewage problem is solved as a whole is positive, problems arise mainly in the countryside. To systematize the sewer Sanitary sewer is divided into partial sewer - for drainage of domestic origin, ie, from kitchen sinks and showers are sent to the filter wells or trenches, and the full sewer, including septic tanks for sewage effluent. Industrial waste water disposed of industrial sewage, which is treated effluent from the sediment, organic matter and fat, with the help of powerful special treatment facilities, based on the technologies of various types. Sewage treatment, such as pollution of petroleum products to the state, which corresponds to a valid regulatory pollution rate of runoff, as well as for drainage caused by precipitation is meant storm water drain. The city has a centralized sewerage system type, and for the city has largely self-contained type of sewage system for individual use. Wide range of options for an autonomous sewer country houses and cottages, allows the user to the most advantageous and convenient to decide for themselves the issues-waste disposal. Enough has been widespread installation of septic tanks with deep biological treatment and composting toilets. Sump, or so-called septic tanks are a reservoir of three chambers: the first, from which collects run, there are deposited solids and the liquid spills over into the next chamber, there is also sinking more dense particles, the fluid enters the third chamber. From the third chamber treated waste water goes into the drain well, or at the filtration site. Sedimentation volume two cubic meters, is enough for a family of four. Sump is reliable and easy to clean, clean it up enough once in a couple of years. But the degree of purification in septic tank is not high enough. When the biological wastewater treatment plant can achieve almost 90%. When using biological treatment systems may be the final pouring of sewage into the drain well, and into a ravine or ditch.
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