Classification of batteries on the chemical composition
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Batteries - main primary chemical power sources and their characteristics.
Salt Batteries - Manganese-zinc power sources with salt electrolyte
Anode is zinc, which is the body of the current source, the cathode active material - electrolytic manganese dioxide or chemical manganese dioxide, electrolyte - ammonium chloride, zinc chloride or ammonium chloride with zinc chloride. The electrolyte is either in the suspended state or in the pores of a microporous separator. To reduce speed or to prevent corrosion in the zinc and the electrolyte added corrosion inhibitors
The advantages of these batteries are low cost and large amount of manufactured sizes
Drawback - the incident bit curve, relatively low energy density, a significant degradation in performance at high loads and low temperatures.
Alkaline batteries or alkaline batteries - manganese-zinc power sources with an alkaline electrolyte
The anode is powdered zinc and cathode - manganese dioxide. Electrolyte is a gel-like solution of KOH or KOH in the matrix. The composition of the anode and the electrolyte include corrosion inhibitors
Merits in comparison with zinc-manganese batteries with salt electrolyte batteries with alkaline electrolyte have higher capacity and specific energy, especially at high loads and low temperature
Disadvantage - more expensive.
Mercury-zinc batteries - Mercury-zinc power sources
The anode is powdered zinc cathode - mercuric oxide, electrolyte - a solution of KOH
Dignity - is characterized by a horizontal discharge curve, high specific energy, low self-discharge
Disadvantages include poor performance at low temperatures, high cost and, most importantly, the high toxicity of mercury
Used in medical devices, precision instruments and other devices. In recent years, due to the toxicity of mercury in some countries discontinued in other countries substantially reduced.
Mercury-cadmium batteries - Mercury-cadmium power sources
The anode is powdered cadmium cathode - mercuric oxide, electrolyte - a solution of KOH
Dignity - working environment temperature from -55 to 80 ° C. They have a horizontal discharge curve, very low self-discharge, which ensures the preservation of charge up to 10 years. Even at 60 ° C self-discharge does not exceed 1% per month
The disadvantages include toxicity and high cost of components. Made to a limited extent in the circular, cylindrical and prismatic
Used in the devices control the drilling of oil and gas wells, telemetry of internal combustion engines, signal devices, alarms, rescue equipment, monitoring devices in remote areas, etc. Because of the toxicity of the production of these power sources are shrinking.
Silver-zinc batteries - silver-zinc primary sources of current
As used powdered zinc anode, a cathode - silver oxide, an electrolyte - a solution of KOH or NaOH (thickened or matrix)
Dignity - have a smooth discharge curve, high specific energy, low self-discharge, can operate at high currents
Disadvantages - rather expensive
Produced in the form of a disk capacity of up to 200 mA-hours Used in watches, cameras, hearing aids and other devices.
Copper-zinc batteries - Copper-zinc power sources
The production of these chemical power sources began in 1889, currently they are released on a small scale in the form of elements of the capacity from 250 to 1000 A-hours Smooth zinc plates and plates of a mixture of copper oxide, copper and the binder is placed in a glass or metal containers with a 20% solution of NaOH. Elements have a voltage 0,6-0,7 V and specific energy of 25-30 Wh / kg
These advantages include constant discharge voltage, very low self-discharge, reliability in operation and low price
Used in alarm systems and communications on railways.
Zinc air batteries - Air-zinc primary sources of current
Cathode active material is atmospheric oxygen, so the cathode is non-expendable, it contains a catalyst for oxygen reduction (charcoal or manganese dioxide). The electrolyte used KOH solution
The advantages of the current source are very high energy density and relatively low price
Disadvantages - the impact of the environment (humidity and carbon dioxide) on the characteristics of the current source
Produced two types: prismatic high-capacity (1000 Ah) and the disc with a small capacity. Used to power communications equipment, hearing aids, medical and other devices.
Lithium batteries with solid cathodes and aprotic electrolyte - lithium primary power sources with solid cathodes and aprotic electrolyte
Reducing agent is lithium, oxidizers - oxides, metal sulfides or fluorocarbon. Electrolytes are solutions of lithium salts (LiClO4, LiBF4 or LiBr) in aprotic solvents: propylene carbonate (PC), dioxolanyl (DOL), γ-butyrolactone (BL), tetrahydrofuran (THF), dimethoxyethane (DME), etc. Depending on the type of oxidant power source has a discharge voltage of about 1,5 V (CuO, CuS, FeS, Bi2O3 or FeS2) or 2,5-3,2 B (MnO2, (CF) n, Ag2V4O11, Ag2CrO4, Cu4O (PO4) 2, etc.)
Advantages - current sources have a higher capacity and specific energy, wider operating temperature range, better performance at lower temperatures and lower self-discharge rate compared with the same parameters of manganese-zinc power sources.
Disadvantages - they are more expensive than manganese-zinc elements. Lithium power sources with a voltage of 1,5 V replace zinc-manganese batteries of the same size, sources with voltage 2,5-3,2 replace the batteries in a manganese-zinc elements
They are used in medical, consumer, industrial and military electronics.
Lithium batteries with a liquid or dissolved oxidizer - Lithium power sources with a liquid or dissolved oxidant
In these current sources are used sulfur dioxide (SO2), soluble in organic solvents, liquid thionyl chloride (SOCl2) and sulfuryl chloride (SO2Cl2). Cathodes in the current source insoluble and are made of carbonaceous materials deposited on aluminum (for SO2), nickel-base or stainless steel. Electrolyte in the element of lithium - sulfur dioxide is LiBr, dissolved in acetonitrile, in elements with thionyl chloride and sulfuryl chloride - LiAlCl4 in SOCl2 or SO2Cl2 with additives
Advantages - These current sources have a very high specific energy, high discharge rate and power density, horizontal discharge curves, the ability to operate at low temperatures (down to -55 ° C), long life
The disadvantages include the relatively high cost, work under pressure, potentially explosive, the presence of toxic components
Used in areas where high specific energy and power, long-term preservation, the ability to operate at low temperatures (in aerospace and military equipment, systems, preserving the memory and other devices).
Iodine-lithium batteries with solid electrolyte - Iodine-lithium power sources with solid electrolyte
Oxidizer is iodine dissolved in a solid polyvinylpyridine (PVP), electrolyte - solid salt LiI, whose thickness increases continuously as a result of the reaction tokoobrazuyuschey
Advantages - These current sources can be stored for a very long time, have high specific energy, wide operating temperature range
Disadvantages - very low discharge rate and power density.
Mainly used in pacemakers and manufactured for this purpose in a special D-shaped.